A person with a firearm in his possession has a full-time responsibility - s/he must know how to keep and use his firearm safely, and then must always take the precautions necessary - all of them - s/he cannot guess; s/he cannot forget.
THIS RESPONSIBILITY IS HIS / HER′s ALONE. IT CANNOT BE PASSED OFF TO SOMEONE ELSE.
NHSA CODE FOR FIREARM SAFETY
Always keep the muzzle of your firearm pointed in a safe direction
1.1 This is the most basic safety rule. If everyone handled a firearm so carefully that the muzzle never pointed at something they didn`t intend to shoot, there would be virtually no firearms accidents. It`s as simple as that, and it`s up to you.
1.2 Never point your gun at anything you do not intend to shoot. This is particularly important when loading or unloading a firearm. In the event of an accidental discharge, no injury can occur as long as the muzzle is pointing in a safe direction.
1.3 A safe direction means a direction in which a bullet cannot possibly strike anyone, considering possible ricochets and the fact that bullets can penetrate walls and ceilings. The safe direction may be "up" on some occasions or "down" on others, but never toward anything not intended as a target. Even when "dry firing" with an unloaded gun (not a good practice), you should never point the gun at an unsafe target.
1.4 Make it a habit to know exactly where the muzzle of your gun is pointing always, and be sure that you are in control of the direction in which the muzzle is pointing, even if you fall or stumble. This is your responsibility, and only you can control it.
Firearms should be unloaded when not in use
2.1 Firearms should be loaded only when you are in the field or on the target range or shooting area, ready to shoot. When not in use, firearms and ammunition should be secured in a safe place, separate from each other. It is your responsibility to prevent children and careless adults from gaining access to firearms or ammunition.
2.2 A loaded firearm, other than a self-defence firearm, has no place in or near a car, truck or building. Unload your firearm immediately when you have finished shooting, well before you bring it into a car, camp or home.
2.3 Whenever you handle a firearm or hand it to someone, always open the action immediately and visually check the chamber, receiver and magazine to be certain they do not contain any ammunition.
2.4 Always keep actions open when a firearm is not in use.
2.5 Never assume a gun is unloaded - check for yourself ! This is considered a mark of the experienced.
2.6 Never cross a fence, climb a tree or perform any awkward action with a loaded firearm. While in the field, there will be times when common sense and the basic rules of firearms safety will require you to unload your firearm for maximum safety. Never pull or push a loaded firearm toward yourself or another person.
2.7 There is never any excuse to carry a loaded firearm in a carrying bag, a holster not being worn, or a gun case. When in doubt, unload your firearm !
Don′t rely on your firearm′s “safety”
3.1 Treat every firearm as though it can fire at any time, regardless of pressure on the trigger. The "safety" on any firearm is a mechanical device which, like any such device, can become inoperable at the worst possible time. Besides, by mistake, the safety may be "off` when you think it is "on." The safety serves as a supplement to proper firearm handling but cannot possibly serve as a substitute for common sense and firearm safety.
3.2 You should never handle a firearm carelessly and assume that the firearm won`t fire just because the "safety is on."
3.3 Never touch the trigger on a firearm until you actually intend to shoot. Keep your fingers away from the trigger while loading or unloading. Never pull the trigger on any firearm with the safety on the "safe" position or anywhere in between "safe" and "fire." It is possible that the firearm can fire at any time, or even later when you release the safety, without your ever touching the trigger again.
3.4 Never place the safety in between positions, since half-safe is unsafe. Keep the safety "on" until you are absolutely ready to fire.
3.5 Regardless of the position of the safety, any blow or jar strong enough to actuate the firing mechanism of a firearm can cause it to fire. This can happen even if the trigger is not touched, such as when a firearm is dropped. Never rest a loaded firearm against any object because there is always the possibility that it will be jarred or slide from its position and fall with sufficient force to discharge.
3.6 The only time you can be absolutely certain that a firearm cannot fire is when the action is open and it is completely empty. Again, never rely on your firearm`s safety. You and the safe firearm handling procedures you have learned are your firearm’s most effective safety mechanisms.
Be sure of your target and what is beyond it
4.1 No one can call a shot back. Once a firearm fires, you have given up all control over where the shot will go or what it will strike. Don`t shoot unless you know exactly what your shot is going to strike.
4.2 Be sure that your bullet will not injure anyone or anything beyond your target. Firing at a movement or a noise without being absolutely certain of what you are shooting at constitutes criminal disregard for the safety of others. No target is so important that you cannot take the time before you pull the trigger to be absolutely certain of your target and where your shot will stop.
4.3 Be aware that even a .22 short bullet can travel over 2 - 2½ km miles and a high velocity cartridge, such as a 30-06, can send its bullet more than 4 km. Shotgun pellets can travel 500m, and shotgun slugs have a range of over 600m.
4.4 You should keep in mind how far a bullet will travel if it misses your intended target or ricochets in another direction.
Use of correct ammunition
5.1 You must assume the serious responsibility of using only the correct ammunition for your firearm. Read and heed all warnings, including those that appear in the firearm`s instruction manual and on the ammunition boxes.
5.2 Using improper or incorrect ammunition can destroy a firearm and cause serious personal injury. It only takes one cartridge of improper calibre or gauge to wreck your firearm, and only a second to check each one as you load it. Be absolutely certain that the ammunition you are using matches the specifications that are contained within the firearm`s instruction manual and the manufacturer`s markings on the firearm.
5.3 Firearms are designed, manufactured and proof-tested to standards based upon those of factory loaded ammunition. Hand loaded or reloaded ammunition deviating from pressures generated by factory loads or from component recommendations specified in reputable hand-loading manuals can be dangerous, and can cause severe damage to firearms and serious injury to the shooter. Do not use improper reloads or ammunition made of unknown components.
5.4 Ammunition that has become very wet or has been submerged in water should be discarded in a safe manner. Do not spray oil or solvents on ammunition or place ammunition in excessively lubricated firearms. Poor ignition, unsatisfactory performance or damage to your firearm and harm to yourself or others could result from using such ammunition.
5.5 Form the habit of examining every cartridge you put into your firearm. Never use damaged or substandard ammunition-the money you save is not worth the risk of possible injury or a ruined firearm.
If your firearm fails to fire on trigger pull, handle with care !
6.1 Occasionally, a cartridge may not fire when the trigger is pulled. If this occurs, keep the muzzle pointed in a safe direction. Keep your face away from the breech. Then, carefully open the action after waiting 10 seconds for a delay fire, unload the firearm and dispose of the cartridge in a safe way.
6.2 Any time there is a cartridge in the chamber, your firearm is loaded and ready to fire -even if you`ve tried to shoot and it did not go off. It could go off at any time, so you must always remember Rule #1 and watch that muzzle!
Always wear eye and ear protection when shooting
7.1 All shooters should wear protective shooting glasses and some form of hearing protectors while shooting. Exposure to shooting noise can damage hearing, and adequate vision protection is essential. Shooting glasses guard against twigs, falling shot, clay target chips and the rare ruptured case or firearm malfunction. Wearing eye protection when disassembling and cleaning any firearm will also help prevent the possibility of springs, spring tension parts, solvents or other agents from contacting your eyes. There is a wide variety of eye and ear protectors available. No target shooter, plinker or hunter should ever be without them.
7.2 Most rules of shooting safety are intended to protect you and others around you, but this rule is for your protection alone. Furthermore, having your hearing and eyes protected will make your shooting easier and will help improve your enjoyment of the shooting sports.
Be sure the barrel is clear of obstructions before shooting
8.1 Before you load your firearm, open the action and be certain that no ammunition is in the chamber or magazine. Then glance through the barrel to be sure it is clear of any obstruction.
8.2 Even a small bit of mud, excess lubricating oil or grease in the bore can cause dangerously increased pressures. causing the barrel to bulge or even burst on firing, which can cause injury to the shooter and bystanders.
8.3 Make it a habit to clean the bore with a cleaning rod and patch to wipe away anti-rust compounds in the firearm each time immediately before you shoot it.
8.4 If the noise or recoil on firing seems weak or does not seem quite "right," cease firing immediately and be sure to check that no obstruction or projectile has become lodged in the barrel.
8.5 Placing a smaller gauge or calibre cartridge into a firearm (such as a 20 gauge shell in a 12 gauge shotgun) can result in the smaller cartridge falling into the barrel and acting as a bore obstruction when a cartridge of proper size is fired. This is a dangerous situation that can result in a burst barrel or worse, and is really a case where "haste makes waste." You can easily avoid this type of accident by paying close attention to each cartridge you insert into your firearm.
Don′t alter or modify your firearm – have firearms serviced regularly
9.1 Firearms are complicated mechanisms which are designed by experts to function properly in their original condition. Any alteration or change made to a firearm after manufacture can make the firearm dangerous and will usually void any factory warranties. Do not jeopardize your safety or the safety of others by altering the trigger, safety or other mechanism of any firearm or allowing unqualified persons to repair or modify a firearm. You`ll usually ruin an expensive firearm.
9.2 Your firearm is a mechanical device which will not last forever and is subject to wear. As such, it requires periodic inspection. adjustment and service. Check with the manufacturer of your firearm for recommended servicing.
Learn the mechanical and handling characteristics of your firearm
10.1 Not all firearms are the same. The method of carrying and handling firearms varies in accordance with the mechanical characteristics of each firearm. Since firearms can be so different, never handle any firearm without first having thoroughly familiarized yourself with the particular type of firearm you are using, the safe firearm handling rules for loading, unloading, carrying and handling that firearm. and the rules of safe firearm handling in general.
10.2 For example, many handgun manufacturers recommend that their handguns always be carried with the hammer down on an empty chamber. This is particularly true for older single-action revolvers, but applies equally to some double-action revolvers or semi-automatic pistols. You should always read and refer to the instruction manual you received with your firearm, or if you have misplaced the manual, simply contact the manufacturer for a free copy.
10.3 Having a firearm in your possession is a full-time job. You cannot guess; you cannot forget. You must know how to use, handle and store your firearm safely. Do not use any firearm without having a complete understanding of its particular characteristics and safe use.
There is no such thing as an accident-proof firearm.